If we consider listening skills and the oral aspect of language as one of the first skills that a person encounters from childhood and when learning the mother tongue, then this aspect is also very important in learning a second language and a foreign language and should not be neglected. However, in language learning books and teaching methods, the amount of attention paid to reading skills does not pay attention to listening and oral skills.
Now we want to know what are the steps in the process of comprehending oral language or language listening skills.
What do you need to understand?
Oral comprehension is based on two pillars, first, to move from structure and form to meaning, that is, to reach meaning and concept from the written form of the text that plays a role in our minds. Second, to be guided from meaning and concept to structure and form, so that we first understand the general meaning and purpose of the text and then look for its written form in our minds, which linguists and teaching specialists prefer the second method because listening skills. It is a momentary skill, not a linear and inferential one.
This method consists of four steps:
Understanding and inference
Divide the text into intelligible pieces in mind
Interpretation of what is understood
General processing of input information
What solutions can be used?
Linguistic researchers believe that for each language level A1A2B1 and B2 there are their own strategies and methods. For example, in the basic and elementary levels of language learning, ie A1, and in the stages of A2, distinct and specific words should be uttered, and words that have phonetic ambiguity or semantic ambiguity should be avoided so that one understands a good proportion of the text heard and discourages teaching. Do not create in the beginning. For higher levels according to linguistic knowledge and due to the person’s familiarity with more complex texts, more words of longer sentences can be used.
But in general, for all language levels, a successful listener is based on these principles:
Listen to short phrases with simple, fairly understandable words. Change the difficulty of words over time.
Practice listening regularly. As you write and practice reading, increase your listening skills.
When listening to text that you do not know many words, try to guess the overall content of the text, do not stop at words that you do not know because this will prevent you from understanding the continuation of the text.
Try to use what you have heard and learned in your conversations and writing because in the future these structures will be in your brain and will not be easily forgotten.
Try to memorize and memorize the short texts you read, because memorizing structures and sentences will help you build the same structures and sentences even with different words in the future of your language. It becomes understandable.
Finally, it can be said that all the solutions and theories expressed will remain theoretical and will not be effective until they are practically used, because an effective solution must be provided suitable for each person, each level and each situation, and a copy. The unit does not meet all the needs and shoulds of listening skills.